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28 July 2014 : today is 100 year to a start of WWI


First World War 100 years Europe plunges into madness of the wider conflict of the story

100 years have passed since that tragic July 28 when, with the declaration of war of the Austro-Hungarian Empire to the Kingdom of Serbia, began the First World War.
The outbreak of the war marked the end of that long period of peace and economic development known as the "Belle Époque", ending also one of the longest periods of political stability in the European Union. The consequences arising out of it was devastating. 10 million dead, 20 million wounded, and the redefinition of world order. The European continent, which had been the beating heart of the world, realizes its self-destruction through war going towards a decline in economic, political and cultural introduction to the next World War II.
We try to reconstruct what happened in those crucial days, and such that were the main actors of hell that would be unleashed in a little while.
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Habsburg, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife Sophie von Chotek Chotkowa, who went on an official visit to Sarajevo, were killed by shots fired from Serb nationalist nineteen Gavrilo Princip (WE HAVE SPOKEN HERE). From this incident arose the diplomatic crisis that ignited the underlying tensions in Europe, thus marking the beginning of the war.
It 'July 23, 1914, when the Austrian ambassador, Baron Wladimir Giesl Freiherr von Gieslingen, delivery to the Serbian government's ultimatum, waiting for an answer that would have to be received no later than 18:00 July 25.
After a long introduction in which Austria accused Serbia of failing to meet the letter of intent addressed to the great powers at the end of the Bosnian crisis, the government on notice in Vienna to Belgrade to be published in the "Official Journal" of 26 Serbian July, a new statement, which bore the text. It undertook Serbia to condemn the anti-Austrian propaganda, acknowledged the complicity of officials and officers in the attack Serbs in Sarajevo and Belgrade undertook to pursue for the future with the utmost rigor such machinations.
The Serbian government also had to engage: "1. To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and contempt of the Austro-Hungarian [...]; 2. A company called immediately dissolve the Narodna Odbrana and confiscate all means of propaganda, and to proceed in the same way against other companies and their branches in Serbia involved in propaganda activities against the Austro-Hungarian monarchy [...]; 3. A deleted without further delay public education in their own country [...] whatever causes or could lead to foment the propaganda against Austria-Hungary; 4. A expelling of the military and public administration all officers and functionaries guilty of propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy whose names and whose actions the Austro-Hungarian Government reserves the right to communicate to the Royal Government [Serbia] ; 5. To accept the collaboration in Serbia of representatives of the Austro-Hungarian Government for the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the monarchy [Austro-Hungarian]; 6. Adopt legal measures against the accomplices of the plot of 28 June who are on Serbian territory; delegates of the Austro-Hungarian Government will take part in this investigation relating thereto; 7. Provide A with the highest priority to the arrest of Major Vojislav Tankosic and a Serbian official on behalf of Milan Ciganovic, that the results of the investigation show involved in the conspiracy; 8. To prevent by effective measures the cooperation of the Serbian authorities to the illicit trafficking in arms and explosives across the border, to dismiss and punish severely the officials of the customs office of Schabatz and Loznica, guilty of having attended the preparatory facilitating the crime of Sarajevo passage across the border; 9. Provide to the Imperial Royal Government [Austro-Hungarian] expound on unwarranted expressions of high Serbian officials [...] which [...] have not hesitated since the crime on 28 June to express themselves publicly in terms hostile against the Austro-Hungarian Government; 10. Notify without delay to the Imperial Royal Government [Austro-Hungarian] the adoption of the measures provided for in paragraphs. "
Completed defined by the then British Foreign Minister Edward Grey: "The document harder than ever addressed a State to another State" and to which the desperate regent of Serbia Alexander Karađorđević he saw 'ability to adhere completely to a state that has a minimum of dignity. "
There followed frantic hours: Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić and his colleagues worked day and night, trying to decide between the passive acceptance of the ultimatum and the temptation to add conditions or reservations that would allow to escape the demands of Vienna. At 15 hours of July 25, they proceeded to the mobilization of the Serbian army, and three hours later, just two minutes from the expiration of the ultimatum, there was the delivery of the response to Ambassador von Gieslingen: "We have accepted some of the questions for ... the rest we rely on fairness and the cavalry of the Austrian general, "these are the historic words that accompanied the act.
No reserve was made by Belgrade in paragraphs 8) and 10); points 1), 2) and 3) were partially accepted; but the answers given in sections 4), 5) and 9) were designed so as to evade the questions of the ultimatum. With regard to point 7) the Serbs responded that it was not possible to proceed with the arrest of Milan Ciganovic, which instead had been sent away just by the Serbian authorities. Negative, finally, the answer to step 6), ie the participation of the Austro-Hungarian Government to the investigation on the assassination of June 28. This request, as well as being detrimental to the sovereignty of Serbia, presented a danger that you did in fact full light on the activities of the Black Hand and its executives feared.
That same 25th of July, the spread of the news of the breakdown of negotiations between Austria and Serbia, in St. Petersburg the Russian General Staff started the "period of preparation for war" (first step in the mobilization) and in Paris the French government secretly called into service his generals.
At 12 am July 28, a telegram with the declaration of war he left for Belgrade, Austria declared war on Serbia officially trying to rely on German in case the conflict was extended. It started the first world war.
A month by the attack in Sarajevo, Hungary declared war on Serbia, triggering a domino effect that within 15 days would have brought all the major European powers at war. Although the authorities in Belgrade, in order to avoid armed confrontation and the secure destruction, they had shown willingness to accept most of the clauses, the answer was unsatisfactory, and so Austria, after securing the support of the German Empire, July 28, 1914, declared war, unleashing hell in a Europe then characterized by the delicate workings of the military alliance between the various states, the sons of tension gained in previous years: if the Austro-Hungarians were strong ties with the German Reich William II, in defense of Serbia took to the field Tsarist Russia and France, while Italy, bound by a treaty with the central Powers defensive and therefore provided for the intervention only in case of aggression, citing the fact that it was the 'Austria to attack initially declared himself neutral.
The war would have ended just four years later, on 11 November 1918. More than 70 million men were mobilized in the world, for what soon became the largest conflict in history. Four years after the greatest empires in the world (German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian) ceased to exist, and these were born from different states who completely redesigned the geography of Europe.

From the site:

Memoirs of the Ausgleich, 1867


Modern History Sourcebook:
Count von Beust:

Memoirs of the Ausgleich, 1867

Count von Beust negotiated the Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867, which transformed the Austrian Empire into the "Dual Monarchy" of Austria-Hungary.

The dangers which Austria has to face are of a twofold nature. The first is presented by the tendency of her liberal-minded German population to gravitate towards that larger portion of the German-speaking people now represented by Prussia, Saxony, what was Hanover, Wartemberg, and Bavaria; the second is the diversity of language and race in the empire. Of Austria's large Slav population, the Poles have a natural craving for independence after having enjoyed and heroically fought for it for centuries; while the other nationalities are likely at a moment of dangerous crisis to develop pro-Russian tendencies. Everyone who has studied the German problem-which assumed an acute form in 1866, when I was Minister in Saxony-must feel that, setting aside the question of rivalry with France, which sooner or later will be decided at the point of the sword, it resolves itself simply into the question of political supremacy. The Germans, that is the majority of them, have been and are still anxious not to perpetuate the state of things typified by the German empire as constituted by Charles the Fifth. Bismarck's object is, so far as I know it, to consolidate Germany under one head, probably that of King William as Emperor. Germany has changed immensely in sentiment and policy since I was at Frankfort as Saxon Minister to the German Bund. The condition of affairs which then existed can never recur; and the action of Prussia in the Schleswig-Holstein question was the first practical demonstration of the underlying principle of Bismarck's policy, which means Germany for the Germans. . . .

... The second danger I have ... mentioned ... presents a far more difficult problem. So long as Austria was a purely despotic State, and the Emperor ruled over it as an absolute monarch-Emperor in Vienna, King in Hungary and Bohemia, Ducal Prince in the other provinces of his vast empire-the local councils had a merely nominal existence, and the governors were there but to register the sovereign's Imperial will and to enforce it by arms if the necessity should arise. The revolutionary wave of 1848 swept over his territories as it did over those of other potentates; laws and decrees which the ignorance and apathy of his people had tolerated, if not approved, in the days of Maria Theresa and the monarchs who succeeded her, raised for the first time among the masses of the population objections and antipathies which generated the firm resolve in their minds to sweep the whole system away. The German element, then as now, took the initiative; but the feeble constitutional measures which were the outcome of popular strife and much bloodshed dwindled down year by year until but a semblance of constitutionalism remained. The comfortable and good-natured Austrian ... soon forgot what had happened, and occupied himself more with his creature comforts and his dramatic performances than with the development of his constitutional liberties. And-which will show the difficulty of the position-the various nationalities of the empire preferred their servile condition to a state of things which on the very principle of Constitutional government would place all the component parts of the monarchy on an equality, and cause their representatives to meet in a common parliament on an equal footing. Now my object is to carry out a bloodless revolution…. , to show the various elements of this great empire that it is to the benefit of each of them to act in harmony with its neighbour, and that no Constitution can permanently exist unless every portion of the State is represented by it. But to this I have made one exception. Hungary is an ancient monarchy, more ancient as such than Austria proper. The kingdom of St. Stephen [i.e. Hungary] has a pedigree of centuries; and its constitutional principle was asserted in the earliest times. Its race and language are entirely different from those of the other peoples which constitute the monarchy; its territorial area is larger than theirs; its population, though less by six millions than that of the remainder of the empire, is much larger than that of any of the nationalities composing it. Its people are powerful, brave, united-and, notwithstanding 1848, loyal; for we must not forget that the terrible events of that year in Hungary were to a great extent caused by a system of military despotism, carried out by Windischgrätz and Haynau, which aroused the just indignation of men of such widely different views and position as Batthyany and Kossuth, and united them in an effort perhaps less directed against the Hapsburg dynasty than against the generals who, under a boy Emperor, were usurping and abusing the functions of Government. In the scheme which I have developed I have endeavoured to give Hungary not a new position with regard to the Austrian empire, but to secure her in the one which she has occupied. The Emperor of Austria is King of Hungary; my idea was that he should revive in his person the Constitution of which he and his ancestors have been the heads. The leading principles of my plan are, not the creation of a new kingdom and a new Constitution, but the resuscitation of an old monarchy and an old Constitution; not the separation of one part of the empire from the other, but the drawing together of the two component parts by the recognition of their joint positions, the maintenance of their mutual obligations, their community in questions affecting the entire empire, and their proportional pecuniary responsibility for the liabilities of the whole State. It is no plan of separation that I have carried out; on the contrary, it is one of closer union, not by the creation of a new power, but by the recognition of an old one. This cannot be too often repeated, for I know that there are many people who maintain that I have divided the empire.


From  Memoirs of Friedrich Ferdinand Count von Beust (London: Remington and Co., 1887), pp. xix-xxv.

From site :

Winds of revolution on the Empire ( year 1848 )


Winds of revolution on the Empire (Part 2).

These were the enemies of the Habsburg capital in Italy. the resistance movement, who preached the Risorgimento and wanted the uniqueness ela freedom of the Italian nation ............................ The same in Bohemia, the most advanced economically and socially between the territories dellacorona, was developing a return to nationalism that opposed altradizionale universalism Habsburg ................ In 1846 the Polish-movimentonazionalistico ........ came out from the catacombs of the underground and was passed to the open struggle ......... Francis G. was the first impression of Hungarian nationalism in October 1847. The Archduke was the Emperor of Austria in his capacity as King of Hungary ........... Hungarians were a proud people, a people of themselves nationalists Hungarians wanted their independence, but not that of other people living in Hungary ......... Nationalism was a disastrous affair. The Germans of Austria he had already been infected. For some time they also had their national consciousness ..... The conception of German national SemprePiù opposed to the principle imperial Austrian ..... The 1847 was a black year: crop failures, stock market crash, the economic crisis. Trade languished, businesses failed, unemployment increased bread was scarce and expensive, the housing shortage indescribable because a greater number of people increasingly moved from rural to urban ............. The ... imperial capital was full of poor artisans, workers hungry, frustrated employees, edi intellectuals intent to discuss ........... The seventeen Archduke starred in the theater in a leading role ................. the performance took place on February 9 18,488 before all the imperial court with the exception of the Empress had been hit by bad news ............. Francis G. had done his best, but had received only applause courtesy ... he was fine in a hussar uniform, he liked to dance ....... but it was a dance which took place on a volcano February 24, for Carnival, came Vienna news that Louis Philippe was overthrown in Paris and proclaimed the Republic ....... February revolution in Paris set fire in Prussia, Saxony, southern Germany, especially in the crumbling Hapsburg reign. The signal was given March 3 at Pressburg in front of the Hungarian Diet .. . The Hofburg reigned fear and indecision .... Meanwhile there were the first deaths ......... barricades were raised, were devastated tax offices, police stations ......... The March 14 was granted the freedom to print 15 March was promised a constitution ............. being untouchable monarchy was over, she was born the sovereignty of the people ....... ......... March 18 barricades in Berlin, fighting in Milan on March 19 in Vienna .... March 20 abdication of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, March 21 riot in Venice, March 22 Radetzky evacuate Milan, March 26 troops in front of the Hofburg ... ............... "We are in a state of despair-complained Sofia.La monarchy was tottering on its foundations, the traditional order of the state and society went to pieces, the Italian provinces sembraano lost, the Hungarians in the way of secession ........ .............
From : "FrancescoGiseppe" by Franz Herre

Winds of Revolutionon the  Empire. (First part)

".......... The Empire appeared as a patriarchal reign: wheat fields and pastures, farms, villages and towns .........., a rural country with a social structure in the form of a pyramid with a broad base of farmers, a truncated bourgeois who aspired to rise and a narrow summit of noble landowners ................. upon the servants, though not against the crown, to which had been abolished in 1821.Dal1846 for the servants there was a chance of redemption ......... Several farmers were happy with their condition, they did not know and neither wanted conceive of a different condition and not a few lived well under the feudal, tempered by patience Austrian and a "laissez-faire" all Austrian. But Austria also began to industrialize. Besides a majority of small businesses, began to rise manufacturing modern new factories ............... n third of the product came from Bohemia, fourth from Vienna and 'Lower Austria, a fifth from Moravia ........ And ..... the Italian provinces were considered more as sales markets and as production areas ............. For the workers, as everywhere in Europe, working conditions were the worst possible They worked up to 16 hours a day, and women and children up to13 hours. foremen I behaved generally as massari, corporal punishment was the order of the day.'s wages remained low, while prices were rising. And for a long time those who had moved from rural to urban labor and could not find the bread ..................... for entrepreneurs, things were not easy. lacked the capital , had to resort to banks .......... Private initiative was something that Austria, in the economic field, he had to be learned, and in the political arena would be hampered for a long time. The "Third Estate" was smothered between the powerful, although small in numbers, the aristocracy and the multitude of integrated working and peasants, artisans and working class emerging. status believed this social structure satisfying, even if it were just the economic outcomes ... The Archduchess Sofia ..... read the Allgemeine Zeitung of Augsburg whose information, if they were not complete in a absolute sense, they were certainly more than Viennese, mutilated by censorship. Already in 1843 she had had in his hands the 'booklet "Austria and its future" .............. which said that Austria was compared to China that is surrounded by a high wall and was ruled by mandarins with the tail ....................... waters of new ideas came up and soon formed a movement in Austria liberal-bourgeois ...... .... The bourgeois liberals, as well as the noble liberal thought of an evolution, but that was not enough for the radical democrats, intellectuals, artisans, laborers, small group and not yet organized: they were intended to political upheaval and social . Archduchess Sophie of which it was said, in part with respect and in part with sarcasm, that was the only man at court ............ his son would inherit a pile of shards? Franz Joseph ............. looked like a well-trained colt which had been made several blinders because nothing could give him shade and distract him from his task. He had to see what was considered appropriate to show, not the 'anxiety which troubled country, but the devout soldiers, officials, notables and the bridesmaids, and the peasants and infantry of the King. heir nothing escaped, had to escape, ........ that was developing a return to nationalism which was opposed to the traditional Habsburg universalism .................... The ideology of intellectuals moved to the interests of middle-class industrial and mercantile ................. " end of the first part ...................
from "FrancescoGiseppe" by Franz Herre

Wien at time to Empire of Franz of this time


The situation in Europe at the end of 800 (second part)

The new German Empire The new German Empire was organized as a federal state consisting of 25 states, each with its own ruler. The imperial government was headed by the Registrar, who was not accountable to the Parliament, as it was in England or France, but only in front of the emperor that he favored maintaining a conservative policy. The federal structure allowed, however, notable differences between the politics of the empire and that of the individual states. For example, in 1875, was founded in Germany the SPD (German Social Democratic Party). Although they are fought by the imperial government, the Social Democrats also managed to win the elections in some states (eg Bavaria) and in different cities. In the German Empire, however, were the Prussian Junkers, to form the ruling class. The German company was then modeled based on the principles that characterized that 'aristocracy of landowners, militarists and conservatives: order, discipline, hierarchy. However Bismarck also attempted to curb the growing success of the socialist movement with a policy of social reform, introducing insurance against accidents at work, pensions for older workers, schools for workers. At the same time, however, limited the freedom of association and the press to thwart workers' organizations and their newspapers. The arms race in order to prevent a possible rematch of France, Bismarck sought the alliance of other European nations. To this end, he concluded a defensive treaty with Austria and then to Italy, which was called the Triple Alliance (1882). The three nations pledged to go to war in the event that one of the three is attacked by another country. A few years later he signed another agreement (treaty-insurance) with Russia, under which the two countries pledged to remain neutral between them if one of them had been involved in a war with others (1887). In 1890 he became Emperor William II, vain man, impulsive and ambitious. He hastened to dismiss Bismarck, which he considered too old and cautious, and announced a new policy of international expansion of the German Empire. The program aroused the alarm of other nations: England, France, USA, Japan. All responded to the strengthening of Germany with the strengthening, in turn, of the 'army and navy. Thus began the arms race that would end in 1914 with the outbreak of the First World War. What followed the fall of Napoleon III and the defeat of the Paris Commune, was called French Third Republic (the First was proclaimed by the Revolution and the Second one kind after 1848). This period was marked by strong contrasts between the bourgeoisie moderate and radical and socialist parties. In just over 40 years as many as 50 governments were formed, each of which supported a different policy. There were also attempts to coup on the part of 'army to impose a conservative and authoritarian government. In 1894, tensions between the conservatives and Democrats resulted in the so-called Dreyfus affair. Alfred Dreyfus was a French officer of Jewish origin, who was put on trial for spying for the Germans. The evidence of his guilt, in reality very little firm, had been "manufactured" by the military authorities to prevent an investigation would involve the highest degree of 'army. On process and subsequent sentencing heavily influenced the climate of anti-Semitism that was taking place in the most reactionary Deli 'army and politics. Condemned to deportation, Dreyfus was defended by 'democratic public opinion. The great novelist Emile Zola wrote an impassioned indictment of the authorities. The controversy that ensued was closed, years later, with the rehabilitation of Dreyfuss. Iron, steel and glass: a new architecture is evolving technology I favored the development of new and more sophisticated forms of architecture: as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century buildings were built of iron and glass (technique first used to cover botanical gardens and then to the halls of the great universal exhibitions). One of the most significant examples is represented in Italy, the structure that holds the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in Milan city center, designed by architect Giuseppe Mengoni (1829-77). Entirely made of steel instead of the Eiffel Tower, which has become the symbol of the city of Paris. Designed by Gustave Eiffel (from which it took its name), this monumental work was inaugurated on the occasion of the Universal Exhibition of 1889). Consists of 15,000 pieces of steel, it reaches a weight of approximately 7,400 tons and a height of 320 meters, while Iati its base measuring about 125 meters. Manhattan Bridge in New York, whose construction was completed in the early twentieth century, is supported by four cables that rest on two large steel towers, the bridge reaches a total length of 887 meters. Anti-Semitism Throughout the Middle Ages, and modern that of the nuclei of Jews living in the various countries of Europe was often a very difficult situation. Living as minorities within society and poorly tolerant, especially in the religious, they were often discriminated against, considered citizens with limited rights, forced to reside only in specific neighborhoods (ghettos). The uguagiianza of civil and political rights of the Jews were first recognized voita the American Declaration of the Rights of 1776 and then in French in 1789. Then the Jews received full equal rights net during the nineteenth century in most of Europe occidentate: in 1831 in Belgium, in 1858 in England, in 1870 in Italy and 1871 in Germany. Russian Empire and Eastern Europe, where so counted flourishing community, the Jews continued to be discriminated against. For reasons of religious fanaticism and intolerance towards every reason to diversity, often were also harassed by the peasantry, sometimes with real massacres, called pogroms .. Only after the rivoluziohe 1917 Russian Russian Jews would get equal rights, which is not always respected in practice. On the other hand, as the Jews throughout Europe obtained the recognition of their rights, spread beliefs inspired anti-Semitism. This was a doctrine he preached the dislike or even hatred of the Jews (the "Semites"), supported by a false and shameful Racist affirming the superiority of an alleged white race "Aryan", destined to rule the world . "Anti-Semitism prevalent in Germany and some Eastern European countries, but also had supporters in France, as we have seen in the business Dreyfus. Devoid of any scientific evidence, historical or logical, anti-Semitism was based only on ignorance and religious fanaticism, often just hiding the deep sense of inferiority or envy of those who I professed. The best response to hateful nonsense Semitism is supported by the French historian Marc Bloch, who fought in the First and Second World War the French army and was shot in 1944 as a member of the Resistance kind in the country against the German occupation. He wrote: "I say then, if necessary in the face of death, that I was born jew, I never thought difendermene, nor have I never had any reason to be tempted to do so. In a world full of the most atrocious barbarity, the generous tradition of the Hebrew prophets. that Christianity. as it was more pure shots to enlarge it, it is perhaps one of our best reasons to live, to believe, to fight? Attached to my home from a long family tradition now, in truth incapable of honoring another one where I can breathe at ease, I have very much loved and I served with all my strength. I never realized that my quality of jew put the slightest obstacle to such feelings ... ". Responding to discrimination and anti-Semitism to the pogrom was born among the Jews Zionism (from Zion, the name of the most ancient part of Jerusalem ). Zionism was a political-religious risen to. establish in Palestine, occupied by the empire turkish, a Jewish national home. It was to allow Jews around the world to join in their ancient homeland as independent people. He was zealous for Theodor Herzl, who managed to organize an International Congress in Basel in 1897. In 1915 Palestine had reached the 110,000 Jews and England in 1917 stated the commitment of the British government in Palestine to establish the national headquarters of the Jewish people but this was much later, in 1948, and only after the terrible persecution of the Jews by Nazi Germany. Victorian England In England, the nineteenth century was characterized by the long reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). In 'Victorian age (it was called at the time) Britain became the first world power. His vast colonial empire extended to Canada, to' Africa, India, while the industrial output ranked first in many important areas economy. London was the most populous city in the European Union (with 3,600,000 inhabitants in 1878), a major port and the headquarters of major banks and insurance companies worldwide. In these years, the two major parties, the Conservative Party (Tory) and Liberal Party (Whig), alternated in power. Meanwhile widened the number of voters, until in 1884 the right to vote was extended to all male citizens. Ireland A very serious problem was represented by the Irish question. Ireland was became part of the United Kingdom in 1801, but the island was largely Catholic, while the government was in the hands of the Protestants of English origin. Much of the best land, also, were the property of the 'English aristocracy, who often resided and lived in England annuity. In 1845-46 there was a terrible famine that caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Irish and the emigration of many others in the United States. All this led to the birth of a movement independence which was opposed to the British government, the rich owners and their administrators. After decades of unrest and bloody battles, in 1921 Ireland became an independent republic, with the exception of the northern region (Ulster) who was all ' England. DECLINE Austro-Hungarian empire in rapid decline appeared in the meantime the Austrian Empire. Always more, in fact, were the difficulties met in Vienna to combine regions, countries and peoples with different language, religion, economy and traditions. Even after the loss of the Italian regions and any influence on Germany, the empire continued tensions. Thus, in 1867, Emperor Franz Joseph agreed to recognize Hungary strong autonomy. Similar requests from Bohemia, and the various Slavic peoples, however, were not accepted arousing great discontent. Moreover remained strong aspiration of Trento and Trieste to Italy to meet. cultural renewal To The impetuous economic and cultural changes that occurred at the end of the 19th century joined by profound changes in the cultural and artistic world. Results very advanced when science had come had questioned the certainties on which it was based: the reality was more complex and science should give up hope of providing an explanation for every problem . Faced with the social tensions produced by industrialization and the development of mass society where the only value seemed to be money, intellectuals took contrasting attitudes. Hostile exaltation of wealth and technological progress, some poets and writers (such decadent) fixed their attention on the uncertainties of man and his loneliness in the great industrial city. Others cultural and literary movements were important positivism, realism., the realism. The most important representative of the Italian verismo was Giovanni Verga, author of novels "Malavoglia" and "Mastro Don Gesualdo" and rusticane novels, including "Rosso Malpelo," "Cavalleria Rusticana," "The stuff", "The Wolf", "Freedom" and so on. From the site: http :/ /

The Europe and Empire Austro.Hungary to the end 1800


The situation in Europe at the end of 800 (PART ONE)

BACKGROUND: As we saw after the Congress of Vienna the many German states and small states formed the German Confederation, led by the Emperor of Austria. It had to ensure control over the Austrian Empire states of Germany. This perspective could not satisfy the Kingdom of Prussia, the most powerful and organized among the German states. Equipped, as we know, the best European army, from the point of view of economic and social Prussia was an agricultural country dominated by an 'aristocracy of landowners (the Junkers). Bismarck led Prussia to establish itself as a Lead State of German unification .. In Paris, a popular revolution gave birth to the city, then defeated by the reaction of moderate Victorian England was, throughout the nineteenth century, the major power declined rapidly, meanwhile, the Austro-Hungarian Development of Germany The development of railway network was one of the most important factors in German industrialization and contributed greatly to the overall growth of the 'economy. Suffice it to mention only some of the data: already in 1846, 178,000 workers were well used in Germany in the construction of railways. In 1875, workers had risen to a record 541,000, and subsequently declined to 320,000 in 1879. So Germany, in just thirty years', he was able to build a rail network of great extent: from 4,822 km of railways in 1850 ran to 33,866 km in 1880. The Ruhr region, which in 1870 was already producing II, 6 million tons of coal, came to produce more than 60 million in 1900. There arose great factories, such as the famous Krupp steelworks, so that the region was producing more than 8 million tons of iron you. GERMAN ECONOMIC GROWTH The German economy could also take advantage of an extensive system of transport: rail network was added fact the navigation on large rivers Rhine and Elbe. Made in connection with a dense network of canals, they made it possible to make low-cost transport to the major ports of the North. In 1862 he became chancellor (ie Prime Minister) Prussian Otto von Bismarck, a politician of considerable skill. Bismarck did not believe in the liberal state: instead argued the need for a strong government and authoritarian. Only in this way could have been accomplished a political power that would allow Prussia to eliminate the influence of 'Austria in Germany. To this end, the Chancellor encouraged the further strengthening and modernization of the 'Prussian army. An important step towards the unification of Germany, that Prussia wanted to realize, was the establishment of the Customs Union (Zo [[Society), in which customs duties were eliminated between states and made easier trade and trade within 'inside the federal government. THE WAR BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA Powered army, Bismarck judged that the time was now ripe for the final clash with Austria. If he could drive it out from Germany, no one would have prevented Prussia to become the state leadership of the German nation. Assured that Napoleon III would remain neutral, Bismarck concluded an alliance with Italy, so as to engage the Austrian troops on two different fronts. In 1866, Prussia declared war on 'Austria and severely defeated at Sadowa. To no served the Austrian victories against the Italians at Custoza and Lissa: Austria was forced to sue for peace, and was excluded from the German Confederation. THE WAR WITH FRANCE The rapid expansion of Prussia, however, had upset the balance between the European powers, Napoleon III began to fear a neighbor turned out to be too ambitious and powerful. Now the fact they addressed their ambitions German to neighboring France, and especially to the rich border regions, such as Alsace and Lorraine, where among other things there were German-speaking minority. Napoleon III, also a supporter of a political power, he accepted the fight, but was defeated in a short time. After just two months of the war, the two settembre1870 the strong Prussian army defeated the French at Sedan dramatically, capturing the Emperor. Two days after Paris rebelled, proclaiming the republic. The new Republican government, after attempting an 'extreme resistance against the Germans, had to ask for an armistice. No other country helped France, only the generous Giuseppe Garibaldi saw with his veterans to defend Dijon, where he clashed several times with the Prussians. Meanwhile, in the palace of Versailles, the residence of the kings of France, the princes and rulers of the German states proclaimed Emperor William I of Germany (1871). The will to power of the new Emperor and Bismarck was confirmed by the harsh peace conditions imposed on the new French government: it was forced to cede Alsace and much of Lorraine. The Paris Commune in Paris, as soon as the Prussian troops abandoned the city, a popular uprising broke out. The government then left the city and moved to Bordeaux. The insurgents gave birth to the movement of said City and took the city government. Radical measures were adopted in the administrative and economic, such as the suppression of 'standing army and the police, the confiscation of Church property, the management of some popular factories. So, for the first time in the history of Europe, was made a socialist government and the proletariat. Paris was already an industrialized city with a large working class. However, it was surrounded by important agricultural regions, much more traditional and conservative, who did not feel involved in the uprising. The Commune was therefore restricted to the single city of Paris. The moderate groups and the bourgeoisie were very concerned about this experiment in radical socialism, reminiscent in their eyes the ghosts of the Revolution. Therefore the government of Bordeaux Paris he sent the army, which besieged the city. In the end, the city was forced to surrender, the capital was captured after very hard fighting that cost the lives of over 20,000 Parisians. From the site: